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Germplasm Collections

Sugarcane Breeding Institute is one of the two World repositories (the other being at Miami, Florida, USA) of sugarcane germplasm. The institute is maintaining world’s largest in situ germplasm collection. Besides this independent and joint expeditions in collaboration with other national agencies for the collection of different species of Saccharum and related genera constitute is an ongoing activity of the Institute.

Field gene bank- Major part of the sugarcane germplasm (Saccharum officinarum, S.barberi, S.sinense, S.robustum S. edule)is being maintained at SBI Research Centre, Kannur (Kerala state) while the wild species such as S.spontaneum, Erianthus spp., and the related genera are maintained at Coimbatore. Some of the clones collected from high altitude viz., Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalya could not establish and flowered at Coimbatore, so S.spontaneum clones from Arunachal Pradesh, E. fulvus and Miscanthus nepalensis collected from Meghalya are maintained at IARI Regional Station, Wellington.

Seed Bank- Poly cross true seeds of S. spontaneum and National Active Germplasm (NAG) varieties are collected each year, tested for germination and viable seeds are sent for long term storage in National Gene Bank at NBPGR, New Delhi along with passport information.

in vitro conservation- In vitro culture facility has been initiated at Kannur Research Centre for conserving the germplasm in phases

Germplasm holdings

Germplasm Holdings held at this Institute

Location Species / genera Indian accessions ISSCT accessions
SBI, Coimbatore S. spontaneum 878 ...
Erianthus spp. 313 ....
Allied genera 41 ...
SBI, Kannur S. officinarum ... 757
S.robustum ... 145
S. barberi ... 42
S. sinense ... 30
S.spontaneum 305 79
Erianthus spp. ... 132
Allied genera 88 20
SBI, Agali S. officinarum 130 ...
IARI, WellingtonS. spontaneum 47 ...
Erianthus rufipilus 5 ...
Miscanthus nepalensis 3 ...

Explorations

Explorations

Exploration of germplasm is one of the priority areas of activities was started by the institute as early in 1912. Since then several explorations conducted by the Institute for the collection of Saccharum germplasm from different geographical and climatic regimes of the country. In the recent past explorations were conducted in Gujarat (Sep 2007) Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand (Aug-Sept 2009). Gujarat had not been explored previously for wild sugarcane germplasm and no accessions from there existed in the germplasm collection.The distribution of S. spontaneum in Gujarat was occasional and mostly found on river banks, dry river beds and field bunds. But it was commonly seen in Kutch district in western Gujarat and in isolated areas in north Gujarat. They were dwarf or medium tall types. A total of 32 accessions of S. spontaneum were collected from different districts in Gujarat. 28 clones of S. spontaneum, Erianthus fulvus and Miscanthus were collected from 9 districts of Himachal Pradesh and 25 clones (S. spontaneum and Miscanthus ) were collected from 10 districts of Uttarakhand.

The details of germplasm explorations are listed in this table

Documentation

Characterization and Documentation

The major part of the species-germplasm available at present had been evaluated for agro-morphological attributes and flowering and the information had been documented in the germplasm catalogues published from the Institute. The germplasm had also been evaluated for specific attributes like earliness based on sucrose content and purity at 7th month and waterlogging resistance at Kannur. The germplasm Catalogues and databases published from the Institute are listed in this table.



Enhancement

Enhancement of genetic resources

Improvement of species-germplasm is being carried out through intra-specific hybridization and selection within the Saccharum species. The improved species-hybrids are being used in the interspecific hybridization. Attempts are also under way to broaden the cytoplasmic base of the hybrids using Saccharum barberi, S. sinense, S. spontaneum and Erianthus arundinaceus as female parents in hybridization.

Interspecific and intergeneric hybrids are continuously developed and evaluated and superior hybrids are inducted into the breeding pools periodically. Nearly 300 such hybrids have been evaluated under sub-tropical conditions at Karnal (Haryana State) also, and some of the superior hybrids have been inducted in the breeding programmes.

Improved genetic stocks maintained at Sugarcane Breeding Institute
Center Material No. of Clones
SBI Research Center,
Kannur
Indian hybrids 1031
Foreign hybrids ((ISSCT) and subsequenct introductions 614
Indo American (IA) Clones 130
SBI Research Center, Agali Improved clones of S.spontaneum 97
Improved clones of S.barberi 21
Interspecific hybrids 94
NDHF (hybrid clones 141

Registration

Registration of germplasm

The Germplasm Registration Committee of Indian Council of Agricultural Research had approved 22 sugarcane hybrids developed at the Institute for registration as germplasm. They are:

Clone No.

Registration No.

Characters for which registered

SSH.1 INGR05021;
IC522943
Sorghum x Saccharum hybrid. ICSA56 (Sorghum) x IJ76316 (Saccharum officinarum)
CYM 04-420 INGR08039;
IC556971
Erianthus arundinaceus x Saccharum spontaneum hybrid with Erianthus cytoplasm
Co 92002 INGR08040;
IC556972
1.A rare recombinant of commercial value involving the wild species Saccharum robustum; 2. Combining high cane yield and sugar yield with tolerance to drought and resistance to smut 3.Tall canes
Co 93009 INGR08041,
IC522951
1. A clone of commercial status combining high cane yield and red rot resistance 2. Heavy Canes with high single cane weight
Co 99006 INGR08042,
IC556976
1. A high sugar variety 2.Tolerant to water logging.
SCGS 00-0402 INGR09053,
IC565019
A pre-breeding stock identify as a source for early high sugar content coupled with high CCS% and juice purity
Co 97016 INGR09052,
IC565018
1. Rare recombinant involving wild Saccharum robustum in the parentage 2. It is high cane and sugar yielder 3. It is tolerant to water logging, salinity and drought in sub tropical conditions of India
Co 91002 INGR09131,
IC565021
1. It is a unique genetic stock for early sugar accumulation at 300 days of crop age. 2. It combines resistance to drought and smut
Co 0120 INGR09130,
IC565020
1. A high juice quality clone 2. Attain sucrose maturity early in the season (at 240 days)
SBIEC 11001 INGR12016,
IC0594462
It is a sugarcane hybrid with high biomass production. Total harvestable biomass 279.0 t/ha and dry biomass 101.2 t/ha.
SBIEC 11002 INGR12017,
IC0594463
A dual purpose energy cane combining high fibre content of 22.58 % and high Brix (15.92). High harvestable biomass potential of 247.5 t/ha and dry biomass of 82.2 t/ha.
Co 0230 INGR12018,
IC 0594465
It is a water logging resistant variety suitable for north central India with 51.34 % higher cane yield than BO 99. This variety is with high ratoonability also.
CYM 08-903 INGR13019,
IC0594482
Sugarcane hybrid with cytoplasm from wild Erianthus arundinaceus. Derivative of (Erianthus arundinaceus x Saccharum spontaneum) x sugarcane hybrid. A good parent giving red rot resistant progeny in crosses with sugarcane varieties.
SBIEC11004 INGR13050,
IC0594464
Energy cane combining high fibre and high biomass
SES 159 INGR13070
IC0561900
Erianthus arundinaceus with high biomass, high yield, high NMC and C.O.D., amenability for in vitro
SBI-1148-11-13-2-255 INGR13071,
IC0598218
4th generation self of Co 1148 with high sucrose, red rot resistance and with proven progeny performance
SBI 2007-291 INGR14011,
IC0598475
A sugarcane clone combining early high sugar (sucrose >18% at 8 month and 22 % at 10 months) with red rot resistance, suitable as a short duration variety High cane population and good rationing potential suitable for harvesting from 240 to 300 days after planting.
IG 91-1100 INGR15031,
IC0612055
CoC 772x Erianthus arundinaceus. Potential parent for high yield and quality
GU-04 (28) EO2 INGR15032,
IC 0612056
True and unique intergeneric hybrid of Erianthus procerus x Saccharum officinarum. Drought tolerant. (IND90-776 x PIO96-435)
GU-04 (50) RE16 INGR15033,
IC0612058
Unique and true intergeneric hybrid between S.robustum and E.arundinaceus Sugarcane. (PIR 00-1100x IK76-91)
GU-08 SSH66 INGR15034,
IC0612060
Intergeneric hybrid between sugarcane and sweet sorghum. High early sugar accumulation. Resistant to red rot. (Co 0238 x SOS 250)
99 WL 379 INGR15035,
IC0612061
Waterlogging resistant clone. High stem nitrogen content and high juice quality under waterlogging conditions. (Co 7313 x Co 96011)

NAG

National Active Germplasm

Sugarcane Breeding Institute is a designated centre for National Active Germplasm Site (NAGS) for sugarcane under National Plant Biodiversity Conservation Network of NBPGR. Registered genetic stocks and released / notified commercial varieties are conserved as active collections for reference and distribution to bonafide researchers.As on April 2016, 226 registered germplasm and notified varieties are being maintained in the field.

The available NAG collections is listed in this table

RECENT NEWS

International Symposium on Sugarcane Research (Sucrosym 2017) First Circular

Cost-saving sugarcane seedling transplanter (Source: The Times of India - Coimbatore, May 23, 2017)

New Transplanter developed for sugarcane (Source: The Indian Express - Coimbatore, May 23, 2017)

Agriculture Scientist Dr. Bakshi Ram has been honoured by Dr. Sanjeev kumar Balyan, MoS, Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation

Dr.Bakshi Ram, Director, ICAR-SBI felicitated for his contributions in improving farmers’ income and sugar recovery through the variety Co 0238.

UP Sugar Output hits all-time record

Ganne Ki Kheti Mein Ab to 38-38 Ho Ri


Sugarcane farmers opt for drought-tolerant varieties

Doubling the farmer’s income by March, 2022-Action Plan meeting of Tamil Nadu state Coordination committee held on 27th March,2017 at Conference Hall, State Planning Commission, Chennai .

Best farmers award for Mr Gyan Ghai a farmer associated with ICAR- SBI Regional Centre, Karnal

Sugarcane Breeding Institute gets award for two predominant varieties

Sugarcane Breeding Institute's two cane varieties recognised

" The Wonder Variety Co 0238 was evolved under the leadership of Dr.Bakshi Ram, Director, ICAR-SBI at Regional center,Karnal is doing wonders in subtropical India (UP)."

"Co 0238 in Farmer Shri. Umesh field in Muzaffarnagar,Uttar Pradesh"

"Ganna Prakash - Hindi magazine"

"Hand Book Identification of Promising Sugarcane Clones"

"Success story (100tons/acre) YLD free Co 86032"

Advisories to mitigate the impact of drought in sugarcane

Yield potential of Co 0238 in UP(Source: Hindustan, Lucknow)

Draft Proforma for Varietal Identification

Draft Proforma for Variety Release Notification

Release of New publication

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