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FAQ - Insect pests of Sugarcane

Shoot borer

FAQ- Shoot Borer

    1. Why should not power sprayer be used for applying insecticides for shoot borer control?
      • For effective control of shoot borer, the Insecticide should cover the site targeted by shoot borer in the plant which is the inner of the leaf sheath and collar region of the shoots. To cover such an area in each and every shoot, only high volume sprayers will be of use as the spray fluid can be directed precisely to the target region of each and every shoot. Moreover, the quantity of spray fluid to be used for the given length of row can be achieved correctly. Power sprayer is more suitable for foliage feeding pests.

    1. What are the control measures other than insecticide for shoot borer?
      • Frequent irrigation and deployment of pheromone traps. Shoot borer attack kills the shoot which would naturally induce formation of compensatory shoots. If irrigation is given, the formation and growth of compensatory shoots are encouraged. In fields where frequent irrigation is not possible compensatory shoots will not be formed and the infested parts of the fields will remain gappy.
    1. What are pheromone traps?
      • In nature a female insect attracts a male insect of their own species by secreting a chemical called pheromone. The male moths at a distance of even a kilometer will perceive the odour and reach the female. Pheromones produced by some borers have been identified by Sugarcane Breeding Institute and synthesized. These synthetic pheromones are impregnated on rubber septa to form lures,which in turn are held above a water trap with little kerosene or diesel. When placed in the field, male moths are attracted to the lure and are trapped in the kerosene or diesel / water mixture.


Shoot borer....

More FAQs on Shoot borer..

  1. Where from the pheromone traps could be obtained?
    • The Rajshree sugars and Chemicals Ltd" Varadharaj Nagar,Vaigai dam,625 562, Theni and Pest control India Ltd.,Bangalore are producing the pheromones. The former firm recommends eight traps per acre while the latter recommends four per acre. But 10 traps per acre, 45cm trap height and weekly filling of water and kerosene in the trap are essential for the method to be effective against shoot borer.
  1. Can we use the same pheromone for any pest?
    • We can use the same trap for any pest but not the same pheromone lure. Each species has different pheromones and hence only specific ones are to be used.
  1. There is no special smell in the rubber septa supplied by the firms. How to find out they are genuine?
    • The smell will be known only to the individuals of the particular insect species and even the other pest species will not be able to identify it. From the collection of moths in the traps the genuineness of the septa can be ascertained provided there is moth emergence when deployed.
  1. What are the side effects of pheromones?
    • No side effects at all at the quantity of 3 mg used in a lure. On the other hand, it has some advantages that are not there even in biological control or in resistant varieties.

Shoot borer.....

More FAQs on Shoot borer..

  1. In fields set with pheromone traps for inter-node borer, its attack was more while the adjacent fields where pheromone traps were not set was having less INB.Could the reason be that moths are attracted from that field to our fields?
    • Not possible. When moths can get attracted from adjacent fields it is more probable for the more attraction in pheromone deployed field itself.
  1. Suppose the maintenance of pheromone traps is poor in deployed field, the moths attracted from adjacent fields will not be killed and so the population of the moth in the pheromone deployed field will raise which could have increased the Incidence?
    • No.The attracted moths are only males and not females. So even if they were not killed they can not lay eggs and also the females once mated with the local males will not mate again. So there is no possibility of increase in pest incidence.

  1. Will trash mulching reduce shoot borer incidence?
  • Yes. The trash acts as mechanical barrier to the tiny and just emerged shoot borer larvae which have to move from one clump to another only through the soil surface as leaves of adjacent clumps will not touch each other during that age of crop. Moreover, the trash will encourage development of general predators such as spiders, carabid beetles etc which increase chances of predation of the moths and the dispersing larvae. However, the possibility of cut worm or rat damage in mulched fields is more.

Shoot borer........

More FAQs on Shoot borer..

  1. Will a light earthing up on 35th day reduce shoot borer incidence?
  • No. It will not because, the larvae are so tiny that they can find their way to the lower part of the shoot below the soil in the gaps present in between the leaf sheaths and the shoots which can never be covered by any amount of earthing up.
  1. The dead shoots of plants have a lot of small white larvae. Are they the causative agents?
    • No. shoot borer larvae are big and only one and rarely two will be present in a shoot. Several tiny larvae seen in dead shoots are saprophytic maggots that develop on decaying plant matter and never be able to attack a plant. If you want to collect shoot borer larvae, select the shoots showing wilting of spindle (and not dried ones) which will have shoot borer larva.

  1. Should an extra sticking agent added with insecticide solution for better sticking on foliage?
    • No. The insecticide itself contain the sticking agent. For instance, if you take Chlorpyriphos 20Ec, of the one litre of insecticide purchased, only 200ml (20%) is the actual insecticide and the remaining 80% are the wetting, sticking, spreading emulsifying agents to make the insecticide effective. So is the case for other insecticdes.

INB

FAQ- Internode Borer

  1. Even after release of Trichogramma chilonis, the dead heart formation by INB is not reduced. Why?
    • Trichogramma chilonis is not an efficient parasitoid to control INB. So, its release may be dispensed with for INB management.
  1. Can detrashing be effective for INB management?
    • Not as a sole method. That is detrashing alone may contribute to only 2 to 4 %reduction in incidence.
  1. Are pheromones effective for INB management?
    • Of the available methods this gives better results,provided, the number of traps is set at 25 per hectare, traps are set at 90 to 120cm height deployed on 5-th month of the crop, water and kerosene /diesel level is maintained at weekly interval without fail and the lures are changed once in 45 to 50 days. In addition, the quality of pheromone lure supplied and the method of storage of spare lure by the farmer governs the efficacy. Even if anyone of the aspects is not met with, the control will not be achieved.
  1. Since only male moths are attracted to the traps it willnot be of any use? why not we attract the female moths also?
    • Reproduction of an insect is by mating of male and female moths. In nature for INB the male and female ratio is 50:50.¬†Also,a female mates only once in its life span of 8-10 days. So, it is sufficient that anyone sex is destroyed. Since in nature only female moths produce the pheromone it can be exploited economically to our advantage.

INB more FAQ..

Internode Borer (More FAQs)

  1. When already mated male moths are attracted to the pheromone traps how the trap will be effective?
  • Unlike the female moths of INB, a male moth is able to impregnate one fresh female daily for up to 4 to 6 days in its average life span of 7 days. Thus, males caught on any day prevents subsequent mating with fresh females. So when a male moth is trapped its subsequent mating is prevented. Sooner they are caught, the better would be the control andso timely deployment of trap and proper maintenance of trap is essential.
  1. Why is INB attack increasing more nowadays?
  • Previously INB confined its attack to the formative inter-node and did not produce dead hearts. So farmers will not know the INB attack unless they detrash the cane. However, INB has changed its mode of attack since 1989 wherein it destroys the meristem and causes dead hearts and bunchy tops similar to that of top borer damage. This symptom is very glaring and eye catching. Besides, the variety Co 86032 is highly susceptible, particularly to meristem damage when the crop is 7 months onwards. Since this variety is grown in 80% of Tamil Nadu almost all sugarcane growers have become aware of such damage.
  1. How to differentiate the INB and top borer dead hearts?
  • In INB dead hearts the spindle leaves and one or two leaves below willdry. In top borer dead hearts inner most leaf alone will dry. INB dead hearts will be very prominent and straw coloured and when pulled will slide from the spindle and come away. The lower part will show the drying symptom, discolouration and some time saprophytic maggots. In top borer dead hearts the colour will be generally dark brown, small in size, may or may not have feeding puncture holes and when pulled will snap and a part of dry leaf will come. The immediate green leaves may show shot holes of one or two rows and the lower green leaf may show the mid tunneling.This is the most distinguishing symptom.

Wooly Aphid

FAQs- Sugarcane Woolly Aphid

  1. Does Sugarcane Woolly Aphid (SWA) cause itching on the body?
  • No. The neonate nymphs that crawl over the body of the person may give a tickling sensation but not known to cause any allergic irritation.

  1. Is it true that SWA can not spread to the entire field within 10 days?
  • Not true. If the climate is favourable, it would take a minimum of two to three months to spread to entire field.

  1. Is Thimet granule application very effective for SWA?
  • No. It will give only 50 per cent control which is not sufficient to minimizeSWA population.

  1. Is it true that since Thimet granules have powerful odour, SWA is effectively controlled even when they are placed in perforated polythene bags and the bags are hung at different places in the cane field?
  • Not true. The respiratory system of human and that of insect is not entirely different. Unless the chemical has specific fumigant action and when it could be used in air tight places then only the fumigant action will work, Since, Thimet is not a fumigant it can not be effective against SWA when suspended on sugarcane plants and even if it is a fumigant it can not work in the open.


Wolly aphid...

More FAQs on Sugarcane Wolly Aphid

  1. Is methyl parathion dust very effective for SWA?
  • Not so. Dusts in general are less effective than EC formulations because it can not be applied thoroughly to cover the lower surface of leaves and are not systemic.

  1. Is there any microbial agent for SWA control?
  • No. There are no microbial agents native to SWA. The pathogens of other insects are not effective also. Moreover spraying the pathogen in sugarcane field is very difficult as they have to be sprayed only on the under surface of the leaves to facilitate contact with the pest.

  1. Where we can get predators of SWA?
  • They will be available in the SWA infested field itself and not commercially available anywhere. However a method to rear it in trays by farmers themselves has been developed by Sugarcane Breeding Institute.

  1. Can SWA attack any other crop?
  • Though there are some reports that it develops in maize and sorghum it is not recorded widely. Moreover. because of the long duration and continuous availability of sugarcane crop and the ability of SWA to attack any stage of sugarcane crop, there is no pressure on the aphid to switch or seek other hosts as alternatives


Termites

FAQ- Termites

  1. Will termite attack be more in light soils?
    • Not necessarily. There are 13 species of termites in sugarcane. Some will be in light soil and some in heavy soil. So attack can be in any soil type.
  1. Will the termites be controlled if irrigated?
    • No. Irrigation temporarily stops termite attack due to excess moisture and when the optimum moisture level is reached the attack will revive.
  1. Even if termite mounds are not there in the vicinity, termite attack is seen in the field?
    • Of the 13 species of termites in sugarcane not all form above ground mounds. Five species form below ground mounds and hence will not be visible.
  1. How should termite mounds be eradicated?
    • Toss one celphos tablet and plug all the holes with mud. If the mounds are without chimneys a hole is made, celphos tablet tossed in and the hole plugged.
  1. Will mixing of used engine oil or kerosene in irrigation water give protection against termites?
    • No. Termite attack will be in patches here and there. The oil mixed with irrigation water will not spread uniformly to all places and required quantity of oil can not be mixed to cover a large area. But though applying engine oil on termite affected spots will certainly control termite, the control will be temporary and the oil will spoil the soil structure which is more damaging than termite attack.

Mealy bugs

FAQ- Scale insect and Mealy bug

  1. What is the control measure for scale insect?
    • Scale is not a serious pest to take up control measures. The feeding by scale is from the storage cell that contain sugar. It may use negligible amount of sugar for its development and so the damage is not severe. Because, the dead remains of the scale insect continue to stick to the internodes till harvest it will give an illusion of severe infestation of entire cane at the given time but in fact the encrustation has built up over several months. Any contact insecticides such as endosulfan or dichlorvos etc. when applied to the infested cane stalk after detrashing will only killmatured scales as young ones would have already settled on tender internodes that are covered by undetrashable leaf sheaths from which the infestation will continue.
  1. What insecticide is best for sett treatment against scale insect?
    • If the setts are to be planted in situ there is no need for sett treatment with any insecticide as scale insect can not develop¬†on setts below the soil for four months till internodes are formed. However. if the setts are to be taken from infested places to new areas for planting such setts may be dipped in dichlovos at 1 ml per litre water and placed in cement bags with the mouth tied and transported. The quick acting Nuvan with fumigant action will effectively kill the scale population on the setts.
  1. How to control mealy bugs?
    • Mealy bug is another minor pest and does not cause any appreciable loss. It is prevalent in all cane growing areas and will be seen as a regular pest wherever cane is grown. Detrashing will help to minimize the incidence but as in scales since the crawlers settle on tender top internodes they can not be eliminated.

White Fly

FAQ - Pyrilla and White fly

  1. How should pyrilla be controlled?
    • In peninsular India, pyrillahad never assumed a pest status. The nymphal instars have five stages and the skin moulted at each stage sticksto the leaves persistently giving an illusionof severe pyrilla population. Moreover, in all parts of peninsular India its parasitoid Epiricania melanoleuca is present which will (automatically) naturally control the pest. It is very important not to spray any insecticide in pyrilla affected field where Epiricania is present.

  2. How should whitefly be controlled?
    • Spraying acephate 2g per lit water will control whitefly. The spray has to be repeated after a month to kill the nymphs emerging from eggs.

White Grub

FAQ- White grub

  1. How to control white grub of sugarcane?
    • The best way to control white grub is when the adult stage comes above ground and congregate in a particular tree (neem tree) at a particular time (immediately after summer showers). The important point is that we should be alert and ready to collect the beetles on the very day of receipt of summer showers and continue the collection for up to a week. In this way, the problem can be economically and effectively solved.
  2. How to control white grubs in standing sugarcane crop?
    • It is very difficult and a costly operation to control white grubs in standing crop of sugarcane. No insecticide is effective against white grubs. Stagnating water for 24hrs in the cane crop will bring the grubs above ground which may be hand picked and destroyed. Care to prevent lodging of crop due to water stagnation should be taken.

Rats

FAQ- Rats

  1. How to control rats?
    • First it has to be ascertained whether the rats come from outside the sugarcane field or live inside the sugarcane fields. Generally, if they are coming from outside the cane fields, the attack will start from the boundaries. If they have burrows inside the field, the attack will be in patches at the beginning itself. After the cane harvest, the live burrows in and around the sugarcane fields are to be identified. This is done by first plugging the rat holes with mud and inspecting them the next day to check whether they are opened. The opened burrows indicate rat activity. These burrows should be applied with half a tablet of celphos and the burrow mouth plugged with mud. Since celphos is a fumigant with odourless poisonous gas it should be handled only by experienced persons and two persons should handle it. The soft rind varieties such as Co 86032 may be avoided in rat attack prone areas and hard rind varieties may be grown.
  2. Which is the best chemical for Poison baiting of rats?
    • In general poison baits will not be of much use in fields that have abundant food supply. If zinc phosphide is used in baits, the rats will develop bait shyness after a few feeding and baiting will become ineffective. Moreover, the baits will kill birds such as peacock, patridge, quoel etc.
  3. Are there any predators are available for use against rats?
    • Availabe but not practicable. Wild cats, snakes, owls, mongoose, jackals etc are effective but can not be brought to cane fields. Domestic cats besides being not so effective will become used to the feeds provided by human beings or would hunt easier prey such as lizard and may not effectively hunt rats.
  4. Can we use cats, snakes, owls for rat control?
    • They are natural predators of rat. However, to colonise them in sugarcane fields is difficult process. Even if they are colonized the danger of snake bite and the hooting of owl is considered inauspicious. Except jungle cats, domestic ones may not be effective hunters of rat in the field and may pose danger to domestic birds. Besides, the predators in general have strong territorial behaviour and so it is not possible to have any number of predators than destined ones in an unit area. Because of this the desired result will not be achieved in the expected time frame. More over, once the rat problem is solved these predators may be danger or nuisance to us.

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